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Covid-19 Nak percaya kpd apa? Nak percaya kpd siapa?

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akudotcom

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Kau boleh bawak kuda ke air tapi kau xboleh paksa kuda minum air kalu dia xmau....


Saya xde la pandai medical science sgt mcm tuan. Saya cuma pernah mengajar Undergraduate, Graduate dgn Post graduate je pasal Imunologi, Medical Biochemistry, Medical Parasitology, Medical Microbiology, Medical Mycology, Medical Bacteriology, Medical Virology, Medical Serology dlm 18 tahun saja. Cikgu2 saya pun x pandai mana. Cuma medical profesor/pakar2 perubatan cabuk yang xtau pasai sains. X macam tuan, cikgu2 saya rasanya pengetahuan mcm tuan kata pakai cakap org lain saja.Saya yakin tuan mmg lebih pandai dari cikgu2 saya. So, kira tuan menang. Tuan mmg No 1. Tahniah.
Betul ckp tuan
Org lain ada jln dia sendiri
Kita tak bole paksa2

Ini bermakna kaedah pemahaman tuan berlainan drp pemahaman sy

kita kene raikan kekhilafan
Masing2 berhak pilih jln mereka sendiri
 

akudotcom

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Informasi mcm ni la kita mau
Sbg hak2 pengguna
Baru ada akai berfikir
 

akudotcom

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Third shot may be needed to combat new coronavirus variants, Bill Gates says
February 17, 2021 / 7:06 AM
By Caitlin Yilek
A third dose of coronavirus vaccine may be needed to prevent serious cases of new variants of the disease, Bill Gates said Tuesday. The billionaire philanthropist's comments come amid to the growing concern that current vaccines are less effective against the South African and Brazilian variants.

"The discussion now is do we just need to get a super high coverage of the current vaccine, or do we need a third dose that's just the same, or do we need a modified vaccine?" Gates told "CBS Evening News" anchor and managing editor Norah O'Donnell.


"All five of the companies that have U.S. vaccines are looking at making that modification and adding that in so that people who've already had two shots might need to get a third shot," he said. "I think it's reasonably likely that we will have a tuned vaccine just to make absolutely sure that as these variants hit the U.S. that they're not escaping from vaccine protection."

Gates is funding studies in South Africa to determine whether the AstraZeneca, Johnson & Johnson and Novavaxvaccines were as effective against the more contagious variant.

"AstraZeneca in particular has a challenge with the variant. And the other two, Johnson & Johnson and Novavax, are slightly less effective, but still effective enough that we absolutely should get them out as fast as we can while we study this idea of tuning the vaccine," Gates said.

If the coronavirus is not eradicated, he said, additional shots may be necessary in the future. "Probably not yearly, but as long as it's out there, we want as many Americans as possible not to be spreading it to each other," he said.
 

akudotcom

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Lebih 12,400 penerima suntikan vaksin Pfizer-BioNTech masih dijangkiti
TERJEMAHAN SINAR HARIAN | | 22 Januari 2021
Sabtu | 20 Februari 2021
948974.jpg

Dos tunggal vaksin tersebut didapati kurang berkesan berbanding jangkaan dibuat Pfizer sebelum ini. - Foto: Agensi
TEL AVIV - Lebih 12,400 individu di Israel dilaporkan dijangkiti Covid-19 selepas diberikan dos suntikan vaksin dihasilkan Pfizer-BioNTech.
Media tempatan melaporkan perkara itu diketahui berdasarkan ujian dilakukan terhadap 189,000 individu yang menunjukkan 6.6 peratus termasuk 69 penerima dua dos suntikan vaksin tersebut masih positif Covid-19.
Menurut laporan itu, golongan itu menunjukkan kadar jangkitan sama seperti mereka yang tidak menerima suntikan vaksin tersebut.
Awal minggu lalu, Pesuruhjaya Pasukan Petugas Covid-19, Nachman Ash mendakwa dos tunggal vaksin tersebut didapati kurang berkesan berbanding jangkaan dibuat Pfizer sebelum ini yang mendakwa keberkesanannya adalah pada kadar kira-kira 52 peratus.
Sementara itu, Presiden Persatuan Industri Vaksin China, Feng Duojia berkata, terdapat kemungkinan penerima vaksin telah dijangkiti virus itu sebelum tubuh mereka menghasilkan tindak balas imun.
"Fungsi vaksinasi adalah untuk mengurangkan kadar jangkitan atau mencegah penerima daripada mendapat simptom serius. Kebiasaannya, tubuh mengambil tempoh selama 14 hari untuk membina imuniti yang berkesan," jelasnya. - Agensi
© 2018 All Rights Reserved • Karangkraf Group • © 2018 Hakcipta Terpelihara • Kumpulan Karangkraf
 

akudotcom

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Some Covid-19 Vaccines Are Effective After One Dose, Can Be Stored in Normal Freezers, Data Show
In a win for global vaccination goals, BioNTech-Pfizer vaccine is shown to generate strong response with one dose and to maintain potency in standard freezers for two weeks
Bojan PancevskiUpdated Feb. 19, 2021 6:18 pm ET
im-301192.jpg

A nurse preparing a shot of Covid-19 vaccine in Jerusalem earlier this month.

Photo: abir sultan/Shutterstock

Efforts to vaccinate the world’s population against Covid-19 got a boost Friday after research showed that some vaccines provide strong, one-dose protection, and that one of the vaccines can now be stored in normal freezers instead of ultra-cold ones.

The findings could boost arguments in favor of delaying the second dose of the two-shot vaccine, as the U.K. has done. They could also have substantial implications on vaccine policy and distribution around the world, simplifying the logistics of distribution.

Pfizer and BioNTech said they have asked U.S. regulators to allow their vaccine to be stored and transported at temperatures consistent with standard freezing, around minus 20 Celsius, following successful internal stability testing. Similar filings were being prepared in other countries.

Should Pfizer’s request be granted by regulators, it would mean its vaccine would vastly expand access in rural regions around the world, as well as pharmacies and physician offices, according to industry experts and officials.


Related Video

Israel says it’s on track to vaccinate everyone over 16 by the end of March. To understand how the small country has vaccinated more of its population than any other so quickly, WSJ visited clinics that are giving shots to young and middle-aged citizens. Photo: Tamir Elterman for The Wall Street Journal (Originally Published Jan. 11, 2021) The Wall Street Journal Interactive Edition
The label change would allow the shots to be kept essentially wherever providers have normal freezers, which would make it much easier to handle and potentially accessible to poorer countries with no access to ultracold distribution and storage equipment. Pfizer’s vaccine would also be able to return to ultracold temperatures after standard temperatures.

“This is excellent news and it will greatly improve the vaccine rollout,” said Ivan Dikic, director of the Institute of Biochemistry II at Goethe University Frankfurt. “The improved protocol will be much easier to handle for both rich and developing countries around the world.”

Pfizer plans to request a label change from the European Medicines Agency, too. If EMA grants the request, the EU rollout could accelerate. EMA didn’t respond to a request to comment Friday. Germany’s Robert Koch Institute, the disease control agency that includes a vaccination advisory panel, said in a statement that it would revisit its guidelines as new data emerge.

The requirement for ultra-cold storage of the shots has been a major obstacle for some providers and local health departments, prompting them in recent months to purchase special equipment. The restrictions have also contributed to the glacial pace of Europe’s vaccine rollout, making it complicated for the vaccine to be administered in general surgeries and nursing homes.

Doses were wasted early on in the rollout as local authorities failed to adhere to the strict handling rules. In the German state of Bavaria, 2,000 doses were discarded due to exposure to higher temperatures.

In the U.S., retail chains such as CVS Health Corp. and grocers, major health systems and other providers have some ultracold freezers, but many communities don’t have them.

Pfizer’s Vaccine
Experts say the change could help with storage as supply increases and as more vaccination sites become available for the general public to visit. Neighborhood pharmacies and physician offices that might otherwise have been left out could administer the vaccine more easily.

“It does definitely increase the number of sites,” said Moncef Slaoui, the former chief adviser to Operation Warp Speed, the Trump administration’s Covid-19 response program, in an interview Friday. “Most immunization sites would have a minus 20 freezer like everybody has at home.”

Challenges remain, vaccine experts say, because Pfizer’s vaccine will continue to be shipped in its specialized boxes that can carry as many as 975 vials, making handling difficult for small sites such as doctor’s offices and pharmacies that may not need many doses.

Rival vaccines are still easier to store.Moderna Inc.’s vaccine can be stored at standard freezer temperatures for up to six months and remain refrigerated for up to 30 days. Johnson & Johnson’s vaccine, which U.S. regulators are weighing authorizing and which has been shown to safely protect against Covid-19, can be kept in normal freezers for up to two years, with at least three months in the fridge.

The findings regarding single-dose effectiveness are likely to renew debate over whether dosing schedules should be adjusted amid limited vaccine supply.

In research published Friday in the Lancet medical journal, one dose of Pfizer’s vaccine was shown to be 85% effective in preventing symptomatic disease 15 to 28 days after being given, according to a peer-reviewed observational study of about 9,000 people conducted by the Israeli government-owned Sheba Medical Center.

More on the Pandemic
Pfizer and BioNTech have said the second dose should be given three weeks later, the schedule that was used in its late-stage study that found the vaccine to be 95% protective. They also have said they haven’t studied alternative dose schedules, but that changes should be up to health authorities.

The U.K. delayed a second dose by up to 12 weeks so it could use limited supplies to deliver a single dose to more people. Almost one-third of the U.K.’s adult population has now received at least one shot. Parts of Canada and Europe have implemented similar measures, though many countries including the U.S. haven’t done so.

The Israeli findings came from real-world data about the effect of the vaccine gathered outside of clinical trials in one of the leading nations in immunization against the coronavirus pandemic. Israel has given the first shot to nearly half of its 9.3 million citizens.

The authors noted, however, that the findings don’t justify changing dose schedules, and that more follow-up to assess long-term effectiveness of a single dose is needed before deciding to delay second doses.

“This is the first study assessing effectiveness of a single vaccine dose in real-life conditions and shows early effectiveness, even before the second dose was administered,” said Eyal Leshem, director of Sheba’s Center for Travel Medicine and Tropical Diseases and one of the authors of the study.

The results might differ from others because the subjects were largely younger and healthier, said Gili Regev-Yochay, another of the authors. She also said the study couldn’t confirm how long protection from one shot would last, as most of the subjects received a second shot.

Also Friday, in the Lancet, the vaccine co-developed by the University of Oxford and AstraZeneca was shown to be 81% effective at preventing symptomatic Covid-19 when doses were spaced 12 weeks apart, compared with 55% spaced six weeks or less, according to results of a peer-reviewed study. Researchers also reported two doses of the vaccine were shown to potentially reduce cases by 50%—a number that scientists said is lower because it included people with and without symptoms. The vaccine’s effect on curbing asymptomatic cases is lower, they said.

Friday’s study updated data published this month that hadn’t yet been reviewed by independent researchers.

Pfizer’s late-stage, 44,000-person study found a two-dose regimen to be 95% effective at protecting against symptomatic Covid-19. The study found the vaccine to be more than 52% effective after one shot but didn’t specify further before the second dose is given.

During the period when the data for the Israeli study were gathered, a coronavirus variant that was first detected in the U.K. and is considered more contagious than the original pathogen made up more than 81% of confirmed infections. The data amount to strong evidence that the vaccine is highly effective against a mutation that has forced European governments to prolong lockdowns.

Ugur Sahin, the co-founder of BioNTech, told The Wall Street Journal in December that next-generation Covid-19 shots would probably consist of one dose.

“This groundbreaking research supports the British government’s decision to begin inoculating its citizens with a single dose of the vaccine,” said Arnon Afek, Sheba’s deputy director general.


—Dov Lieber
and Jenny Strasburg contributed to this article.
 

konaLeper

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Awal tahun 2020, aku gelak berguling2 bila baca Covid adalah singkatan kpd Certificate Of Virus ID.
Mlm tadi di kaca TV, Menteri Kesihatan sebut “……..vaksin paspot….”.
Aku termenung dan takde mood nak gelak lg.
 

konaLeper

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Tujuan topik ni bukan nak kempen tolak vaksin atau lain2 tujuan. Hanya nak meningkat kesedaran: sains tak “settle” apa2 mengenai covid19. Maknanya, pakar virologis/epidemeologis berbeza pendapat mengenai virus tu sendiri dan kaedah menanganinya.

Andaiakan: label GermTheory adalah mereka yg percaya virus perlu diasingkan (isolated) dan label ViralTheory adalah mereka yg percaya cukup mengetahui genomic sequencing.

1 senario debat di antara mereka.

GermTheory:
The soup consists of the virus, plus human and animal cells, plus (toxic) drugs and chemicals, plus all sorts of other genetic material.They know the virus is in the soup, because some of the cells are dying. The virus must be killing the cells.

WRONG. The toxic drugs and chemicals could certainly be killing the cells. The cells are also being starved of vital nutrients, and that fact alone could account for cell-death.

ViralTheory:
https://www.auckland.ac.nz/en/news/...es-covid-and-misinformation-rabbit-holes.html

Koch’s postulates were first laid out more than 130 years ago:

  1. The organism must always be present, in every case of the disease.
  2. The organism must be isolated from a host containing the disease and grown in pure culture.
  3. Samples of the organism taken from pure culture must cause the same disease when inoculated into a healthy, susceptible animal in the laboratory.
  4. The organism must be isolated from the inoculated animal and must be identified as the same original organism first isolated from the originally diseased host.

So, in the light of the 21st century how do the postulates hold up? Well, the first one was soon abandoned by Koch himself with the discovery that people could be asymptomatic carriers of the microbes responsible for cholera and typhoid fever. In the years since, we’ve come to understand that many microbes can live in and on people and only cause disease under certain circumstances. We’ve also come to understand that some microbes can set off a chain reaction that leads to disease long after the organism in question has been cleared by the immune system.

The second postulate should really read something like: it would be nice if the organism could be isolated and grown in pure culture. That’s because we don’t even know the conditions under which many microbes grow outside of their host. Take Mycobacterium leprae which causes leprosy. As far as we know, that can only grow in humans, nine-banded armadillos, and a mouse’s footpad. Just because we can’t grow it in pure culture doesn’t mean it isn’t responsible for leprosy. Indeed, using genomic sequencing, we know there are way more microbes than we’ve ever been able to grow in pure culture.

Obviously postulates three and four suffer from the same issue if the microbe can’t be grown in culture. Postulate three would also be better phrased as should cause the same disease when inoculated into a susceptible animal in the laboratory. I say should and specify susceptible because we also now know that some microbes can’t cause disease in a healthy host but can if the host is immune-compromised.

Mana 1 yg betul?
 

akudotcom

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Germ theory vs terrain theory

germ theory mengatakan germ ni jahat attack bdn kita
Manakala terrain theory mengatakan germ bukan jahat ..tp jd ‘jahat’ bila kondisi bdn kita weak

sbb tu ada org recovery well
Ada org senang plak dpt jangkitan

semuamasih tetap bergantung pd sistem immune bdn sendiri
Tats hiv/immunoconpromised pt tak dibenarkan amik vaccine
 
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