Kisah Kegemilangan Kerajaan Islam Kedah Yang Hebat Satu Ketika Dahulu

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Encik Sponge

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Tamadaun lain banyak lagi bangunan tapi tang kedah tua tinggal batu je.
Kalau ikut admin fb tue yang bawa hilite tamadun kedah tua nie, ada kapal di dasar paya hutan sawit kat situ...

bentuk mukabumi semenanjung dulu yang pesisir pantai dah jadi tanah daratan... banyak yang tenggelam dalam tanah

Atas kehendak kerajaan kalau nak korek sejarah nie...

angkor watt kt kemboja tuh bkn ke salah satu tamadun awal?
Angkor Wat tu zaman lebih kurang 113 sebelum masihi

Kalau kedah tua yang terbaru 788 sebelum masih... lebih awal dari tamadun rom 753SM...

Tamadun tertua di asia setakat nie

 

Xploit Machine

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tadak pulak thai tulis -disini bermulanya tanah chola
Kesultanan Negeri Kedah (Kedah Sultanate) - Invasion of Chola Kadaram - Kondan “Conqueror of Kadaram”



The state of Kedah is no doubt, the oldest state in Malaysia and the royal lineage of Kedah is also the longest and the oldest in Malaysia, originating since the Hindu age Prior to its formation in the year 1136. Kedah was a Hindu kingdom founded by Maharaja Derbar Raja of Gemeron around 630 CE. who is also the founder of Kingdom of Langkasuka. (he maybe Siamese Hindu or Persian Hindu not sure still unknown history about him) later he known as Bandar Abbas in Persia was defeated in battle and escaped to Sri Lanka (Ceylon), and he was later blown off course by a storm to the remote shores of Kuala Sungai Qilah, The inhabitants of Kedah found him to be a valiant and intelligent person, and they made him the king of Kedah. In the year 634 CE, a new kingdom was formed in Kedah consisting of Persian royalty and native Malay of Hindu faith,the capital was Langkasuka. Kedah.


Medieval History

Early in the Medieval era, Kedah became part of Srivijaya (the dominant Malay state and a major power in the Indian Ocean trade). This led to rivalries with the Indian states, especially the Cholas from the 9th to 13th centuries CE. The Cholas had a powerful merchant and naval fleet in the Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal. In the early 11th century, Chola King Rajendra Chola I sent an expedition to invade Kadaram on behalf of one of its rulers who sought his assistance to gain the throne. Chola dominance was brief, but effectively crippled the power of Srivijaya.


End of Srivijayan Maharajas Era

In the early 11th century, inscriptions indicate that ties of friendship still existed between Chola and Kadaram of Srivijaya, however the commercial monopoly claimed by the Srivijayan Maharajas led to their friendship ended. The first Chola attack began in the year 1025, Rajendra's army sack Kadaram and the Srivijaya capital and took the Srivijaya king Sangrama Vijayottungavarman captive. The kingdom was restored to him only after he acknowledged Chola's sovereignty. The aim of the Cholas was probably just to force the empire to open its shipping lanes as Srivijaya was some 1,500 miles remote and difficult to control. Recovered Tamil inscriptions from the region show that there was Chola military presence till at least year 1088 in the Malay archipelago.Scholars like R.C. Majumdar think that the emperor despatched more than one expedition to humble the Srivijayas, with 13 towns in the archipelago sacked by the Cholas has come from Rajendra's own inscriptions with six located on the Malay peninsula, four on Sumatra, the other being the Nicobar islands. Paul Wheatley have been sceptical of Rajendra's claims about the number of towns his army sacked, but most agree that a raid did take place.George Spencer pointed out that the campaign is plausible because it fits the Chola pattern of compulsive expansion in this period,fits the aim of Rajendra to exceed his father's accomplishments and fits the persistent Chola need to locate fresh sources of plunder or tribute. There is evidence to show that the king of Kambujadesa sent a chariot to the Chola, probably to appease him so that his strategic attention does not extend further than the Malay peninsula.


Invasion of Chola

Kedah, the west coast of Malaya, is known as Kadaram in Tamil. Kadaram-kondan “conqueror of Kadaram” was one of the attributes given to Rajendra Cholan I of the Tamil Chola empire of the early 11th century AD. There is also a place in the Madurai District in Tamil Nadu, of the Pandyan Empire, with the name Kadaram.village in Tanjore District in chola empire,near Mayavaram Mayiladuthurai, now is 'Kadaram kondan'. A large and round fruit, which is a species of orange, with sour and bitter taste (not grapefruit) is called by the Tamils as kadarangkay, kadaram-pulp. This variety of orange was brought by the Tamil tradersfrom Malaysia to Tamil Nadu, or the place abounded by this pulp could have been named after it by the Tamil settlers in Malaya.The reason rajendra chola able to conqueror kedah quick because the Beemasenan's Chola navy attack battle between the defenders of Kedah fort."refer to the Siamese painting depicting the Chola raid on Kedah." later he was appointed as Chakravarthy (Supreme commander) for kadaram administration and Beemaseenan later known as The famous admiral of the Siege of the Kedah (kadaram).


Conversion to Islam

In the late 11th century, war infested Srivijaya sent ambassadors from Jambi and Palembang to China to seek peace solution against the Chola attack with newly emerging Jambi Muslims sent two more ambassadors to China in 1082 and 1088. This suggests that the power frequently shifted between Jambi and Palembang. Right after the Chola military left Kadaram(other name for Kedah),The ninth maharaja, Phra Ong Mahawangsa who hindu malay mixed raja converted to Islam and subsequently ruled as Sultan Mudzafar Sha and here the Hindu dynasty ended when Phra Ong Mahawangsa converted to Islam.so the previous 8 ruler were hindu The Kedah Sultanate started with this first sultan and remained intact for over 8 centuries.in 1136 and founded the Sultanate of Kedah.Sultan Mudzafar Shah I, or Phra Ong Mahawangsa was the first Sultan of Kedah. His reign was from 1136 to 1179. He was the first and last Hindu king of Kedah. After his conversion to Islam, he later became the founder of the Kedah Sultanate, which still exists to this day.

Kedah Rulers

Pre Islamic Kings (Hindu Era)
  • Sri Paduka Maharaja Durbaraja, Raja of Langkasuka Kedah. Founder of the kingdom of Langkasuka.
  • Sri Paduka Maharaja Diraja Putra
  • Sri Paduka Maharaja Mahadewa
  • Sri Paduka Maharaja Karnadiraja
  • Sri Paduka Maharaja Karma
  • Sri Paduka Maharaja Dewa II
  • Sri Paduka Maharaja Dharmaraja I
  • Sri Paduka Maharaja Mahajiwa. Styled "Phra Ong Maha Podisat" by the Siamese.

Sultans of Kedah (Islamic Era)
  • Paduka Sri Sultan Muzaffar Shah I "Phra Ong Mahawangsa" (1136–1179), Styled "Sri Paduka Maharaja Durbar Raja" (last hindu king).
  • Sultan Muazzam Shah (1179–1201)
  • Sultan Mohammed Shah (1201–1236)
  • Sultan Maazul Shah (1236–1280)
  • Sultan Mahmud Shah I (1280–1320)
  • Sultan Ibrahim Shah (1320–1373)
  • Sultan Sulaiman Shah I (1373–1422)
  • Sultan Atadullah Muhammed Shah (1422–1472)
  • Sultan Muhammed Jiwa Zainal Abidin I (1472–1506)
  • Sultan Mahmud Shah II (1506–1546)
  • Sultan Muzaffar Shah II (1546–1602)
  • Sultan Sulaiman Shah II (1602–1625)
  • Sultan Rijaluddin Shah (1625–1651)
  • Sultan Muhiyuddin Shah (1651–1661)
  • Sultan Ziauddin Al-Mukarram Shah (1661–1687)
  • Sultan Atadullah Muhammed Shah II (1687–1698)
  • Sultan Abdullah I Al-Muazzam Shah (1698–1706)
  • Sultan Ahman Tajuddin Halim Shah I (1706–1709)
  • Sultan Abdullah II (1709–1723)
  • Sultan Atadullah Muhammed III (1723–1741)
  • Sultan Muhammed Jiwa Zainal Abidin II (1741–1778)
  • Sultan Abdullah Makarram Shah III (1778–1797)
  • Sultan Ziyauddin Mukarram Shah II (1797–1803)
  • Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin II Halim Shah (1803–1843)
  • Sultan Zainal Rashid Muadzam Shah II (1843–1854)
  • Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin III Mukarram Shah (1854–1879)
  • Sultan Zainal Rashid Muadzam Shah III (1879–1881)
  • Sultan Abdul Hamid Halim Shah (1881–1943)
  • Sultan Badli Shah (1943–1958)
  • Sultan Abdul Halim Muadzam Shah (1958)
 

Encik Sponge

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tadak pulak thai tulis -disini bermulanya tanah chola
Jauh sangat tarikh Chola dengan Kedah tua nie...

Kalau ikut versi catatan sejarah pon ada 2 versi asal Kedah

1. Maharaja Durbaraja 1 dari Parsi
2. Merong Mahawangsa utusan raja Rom

Kalau ada perang dalam waktu tu mungkin ada libat Chola, cuma bukan Chola yang buka
 

rayz

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siam.png

Slices of Thai History: From the curious & controversial to the heroic & hardy
 

syamsoulcc

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sejarah ni, kalau kita ambil pengajaran dan gunakan pengajaran utk kehidupan skarang, ok lah...

tp kalau stakat kita berbangga dgn kehebatan nenek moyang kita dulu semata-mata je, sia-sia je lah belajar sejarah...
 
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